October passed by rather quickly this year.  Although this month seemed short there was still plenty of learning to be had.  And, of course, we had fun celebrating Halloween.

Grammar & Spelling

     In grammar class we studied the subject and predicate of sentences.  The subject of a sentence tells us whom or what the sentence is about.  The predicate of a sentence is what the subject does or is in the sentence. These terms along with learning how to identify run-on sentences helps the students write more complete and correct journal entries.

In spelling we finished covering words that contain short and long vowels sounds on the letter o and were introduced to homophones.  Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings.  Homophones have greatly encouraged the students to not only spell correctly but to also understand a word in its context.


In science class we learned about vertebrates and invertebrates and what makes them different.  A vertebrate is a living thing that has a backbone.  We created our own spinal columns out of pasta and gummies.  The pasta represented the 24 bones, vertebrae, which make up a human backbone.  The gummies represented the tissue between each vertebrae that cushions and prevents our backbone from hurting or breaking when we move.  Then we progressed into the invertebrates.  These are living things without a backbone.  We observed live earthworms, which are a type of invertebrate, to understand how they move and where they like to live.  Our last science subject of the month was about fossils, extinct species, and endangered species.  We learned how changes to a living thing’s habitat can cause a species to become extinct.  We also learned how to protect endangered species so that they do not become extinct.

Social Studies

In social studies class, we’ve been learning about communities and just started on land and water and their effects on the earth.  Communities come in different sizes and offer different things to the people who inhabit them.  They learned what a law is and why communities have them.  They learned about the three main types of communities; urban, suburban, and rural areas and the sorts of jobs that exist in each of them.  Finally, they began learning about how the land on earth is shaped by wind and water and what the name of those landforms is.  They also learned the difference between weather and climate.

Reading & Writing

In reading & writing class, we’ve been focusing on the compare and contrast aspect of a story.  The story used to illustrate this concept explained that although people may have differences it is ok and that’s what makes us special.  This month’s journal entries reflect that.