Leaves contain a variety of pigments. In spring and summer the green pigment mask colors of the others. This event is usually triggered by the declining day length and falling temperatures of autumn.The green pigment in leaves is broken down, allowing other colors- yellow, orange, red and brown-to show.

 Green Pigment (Chlorophyll)

Green Pigment absorbs energy from light; this energy is then used to convert carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.

Yellow Pigment & Orange Pigment
(Xanthophyll & Beta-carotene)

Yellow and orange pigments always exist in leaves along with green pigment.With Green Pigment dwindling, they begin to show.

Red Pigment(Anthocyanin)

。Red Pigment is manufactured of sugar trapped in the leaf.
。Red Pigment prolongs the time that leaves fall from the tree.

Brown Pigment (Tannin)

When all pigments break down, only tannins remain.
Tannins are not only present in leaves, but also be found in the bark of trees, wood, leaves, buds, stems, fruits, seeds, roots, and plant galls.


  • Oaks can be reproduced easily reform acorns and grow well in moderately moist soil or dry, sandy soil.
  • The leaf changes to red in fall

  • Sugar maple is a commercially important source of maple syrup, maple sugar.
  • The leaf changes to orange in fall.

  • Aspen native to the Northern Hemisphere and known for the fluttering of yellow leaves in the slightest breeze.

  • DOGWOODS native to the eastern and central United States.
  • The leaf changes to reddish purple in fall.